The Illinois Department of Public Health announced Monday it has developed a statewide system to monitor COVID-19 and its variants in wastewater, which it will roll out in phases throughout the rest of the year.
COVID-19 is detectable in human waste nearly from the onset of infection, while symptoms may not appear for three to five days.
The system is a partnership with the Discovery Partners Institute.
Wastewater monitoring involves treatment plant personnel collecting 8-ounce samples twice weekly and shipping them overnight for laboratory analysis. A rapid, automated sample processing and analysis system will be built to measure SARS-CoV-2 levels, which will indicate a rise or fall of COVID-19 infections in the community served by the treatment plant.
Samples will be further analyzed at Argonne National Laboratory and IDPH laboratories using genetic sequencing to track COVID-19 variants.
“Data generated through sampling wastewater will help public health officials better understand the extent of COVID-19 infections in communities,” IDPH Director Dr. Ngozi Ezike said in a news release. “Wastewater testing has been used successfully in the past for early detection of diseases, such as polio. Measuring the virus levels in untreated wastewater can serve as an early indicator of increasing infections in a community and can inform our public health actions.”
Together, the IDPH and DPI will implement the program in phases, starting with sampling and analysis in 10 Illinois counties, expanding to 35 counties in mid-summer, and to all 102 Illinois counties by the end of the year. The 10 counties include Carroll, Cass, Franklin, Fulton, Jefferson, Lawrence, Livingston, Macon, Montgomery and Vermilion.
“Wastewater analysis is an ideal method for understanding COVID-19 trends in communities, complementing individual testing and providing an early indicator of outbreaks,” DPI Director of Research Dr. Venkat Venkatakrishnan said in a news release. “The testing is sensitive enough to detect a handful of COVID-19 cases in a population of tens of thousands yet is completely anonymous.”